The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) is the world's most widely used standard for tracking and managing greenhouse gas emissions. It was developed jointly by the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) to help companies, governments, and other entities understand, quantify, and manage their greenhouse gas emissions. This standard classifies emissions into three so-called "scopes" or areas.

Scope 1: Direct GHG emissions

Direct or Scope 1 emissions refer to greenhouse gases released directly from sources within an organization. This includes combustion processes of fossil fuels such as gas, oil or coal in stationary sources (such as factories or plants) and mobile sources (such as company-owned vehicles), as well as direct industrial processes and possibly leakage.

Scope 2: Indirect GHG emissions from the generation of purchased energy

So-called Scope 2 emissions relate to indirect greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the generation of electricity, steam, heating or cooling purchased and consumed by an organization. This therefore relates to emissions that result from burning fossil fuels elsewhere to generate the energy used by the organization.

Scope 3: Other indirect GHG emissions

Scope 3 emissions are all other indirect emissions that occur in a company's value stream. These emissions can result from a wide range of activities, such as the production and transportation of purchased materials and fuels, business travel, commuting employees, or the disposal and treatment of sold products at the end of their life cycle.

Together, Scopes 1 to 3 of the GHG Protocol provide a detailed picture of an organization's full greenhouse gas emissions. They not only enable companies to identify and understand their environmental impacts, but also provide the basis for effective reduction strategies and transparent communication with stakeholders. For more information about the Greenhouse Gas Protocol, visit: