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硬车 / 磨削加工

The combination of a number of processes – such as hard turning and grinding – on a single machine, allows for the exploitation of considerable rationalisation potentials.

The advantages of the process combination hard turning and grinding lie in the complete- machining of workpieces, greater flexibility and improved component quality.

继续阅读

Hard turning and grinding: improved quality and greater flexibility

The process combination hard turning / grinding is used, to great effect, to reduce cycle times. Where the complete hard finishing process (hard turning and grinding) is carried out on a single machine, throughput, transport and storage times can be drastically reduced. There are also advantages in the reduction of setup efforts and setting times.

The hard turning and grinding technology has proven its worth in the field

In the machining of chucked components (VSC DS Hard Turning and Grinding Machine) the combination of hard turning and grinding is state-of-the-art. There is, however, a considerable rationalisation potential still to be tapped, as by no means all the processes where it would be advantageous to switch to the combination process hard turning and grinding, have been changed. The future will see the increased integration into combination machines of processes such as hard milling, hard reaming and honing, in addition to hard turning and grinding. For shaft machining too, the market offers suitable machine concepts that integrate the hard turning and grinding process (VTC 315 DS Hard Turning and Grinding Machine for shaft components). The use of these systems is, however, not as common as in the machining of chucked components with hard turning and grinding technology, as there are already highly efficient systems based on conventional grinding technology, CBN technology and modern turning technology in existence. But there are signs that the advantages the combination machining hard turning and grinding brings, will also be used more frequently in the machining of shafts.

In summary, it must be noted that the combination machining process hard turning and grinding is no longer an exotic thing, but that both the technology and the machines have been well tested. The consistent use of the combination machining process hard turning and grinding and the integration of other production processes will be advantageous in tapping into further considerable rationalisation potentials.

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硬车 / 磨削加工

传统的外圆切入磨削技术

传统外圆切入磨削技术仍为许多公司广泛应用。虽然这一技术应用时间已很长,大家对这一技术的经验也必较丰富,但涉及到创新时,该技术有很多美中不足之处, 原因是这一技术在长期的使用过程中已不断被优化,现在几乎已不再有优化空间.

硬车

在许多应用中,硬车技术和传统的磨削技术往往会势均力敌,形成某种竞争局势。硬车的特点无容质疑也是柔性高,另外是可以干加工。但硬车的不足之处是工艺稳定性问题。由于存在不可预见的断刀问题,所以硬车的工艺不稳定。另外标准机床硬车时可达到的工件质量局限在IT6范围内.

CBN磨削

和传统磨削技术相比,采用CBN切入磨削的一大优点是能够大幅度减少主加工时间。除此之外,由于CBN砂轮的寿命长,所以也在一定程度上减少了非机加工时间。CBN磨削技术的缺点是:由于刀具的绝对价格高,所以只适合于系列或批量生产。

高速外圆成型磨削或无纹路磨削技术则是对CBN磨削技术的有效补充。高速外圆成型磨削或无纹路磨削一般采用窄砂轮,加工时砂轮数控走过轮廓轨迹,从而生成工件形状。这一技术的优点是柔性高,特别适合用于同一家族工件的加工。 其缺点则是因采用高速磨削技术,并需要采用磨削油,所以机床的投资费用稍高.

硬车 / 磨削加工

A typical example of combination machining (hard turning and grinding) is the machining of gearwheels. The shoulders are finish hard turned. Because of the high demands made on their quality, the bore and cone are pre-turned and finish-ground. To achieve this, the machine has been equipped with two grinding spindles, one of which is designed to machine the bore, with the second one machining the external sections of the component. As only a few hundredth of a millimetre have to be ground away, the grinding tools are designed for finishing only. Meanwhile, this process has - to a large extent - replaced single-process grinding machines and can, by rights, be considered state of the art.

Another example of the practical application of this combination technology (hard turning and grinding) is the machining of scroll-free seats. A pressure ring needs to have its outside diameter and its face machined, whereby the O/Ds surface must be scroll-free. In this case it would be appropriate to hard finish-turn the face and to pre-turn and then finish-grind the O/D. The grinding wheel is dressed by plunging it into an axis-parallel positioned profiling roll. The grinding process too is of the plunge-cut type. This process makes absolutely sure that scroll marks are avoided.

Yet another interesting example of combination machining is the machining of nuts with internal ball tracks, as used in ball screws. These nuts need to have the internal thread, the face, the O/D and the shoulder machined. The concept used allows for the face, the O/D and the shoulder to be hard turned and the internal thread on the ball track to be ground. A machine like the VSC, equipped with Y- and B-axis, is ideal for the purpose. The high-precision B-axis allows the setting of the lead angle of the thread, whilst the Y-axis serves as infeed axis for the machining of the ball track. The machine is equipped with two grinding spindles, which - for pre-turning and finishing work - can be equipped with a variety of tools. The grinding tool profiles are dressed with a separate dressing attachment equipped with diamond profile dressing rolls. The machine is suitable for the use of both conventional and CBN grinding wheels. A 2.5-D measuring probe serves to ascertain the exact angular position of the workpiece. It can also be used for the post-process control of the hard turned surfaces.

The advantage of this concept over conventional, sequential processes is that all quality-defining surfaces can be machined in a single setup. Re-clamping errors that affect in particular the alignment of face and O/D to the centre line of the ball groove are thus avoided.

Finishing a gearwheel with hard turning and grinding operations

Finishing a gearwheel with hard turning and grinding operations on an EMAG VSC 250 DDS.

Hard turning / grinding: all precision-machining processes on a single machine

Combination machining hard turning and grinding of shafts. All precision-machining processes on a single machine: CBN grinding, hard turning and scroll-free turning, providing exceptional flexibility in the precision-machining of shafts.

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